The LCA was a cradle to grave assessment, examining the following factors:
1. Extraction/processing of raw material inputs and manufacture of components: The assessment looked at all material inputs, along with the energy it took to obtain them. It also looked at the transportation of materials to supplier operations.
2. Bottle manufacturing and packaging production: For steel and aluminum bottles, the assessment was completed by dismantling each product, identifying materials, and weighting each component. Data relating to the transportation to the manufacturing facility of raw materials, component inputs, and packaging were also included.
3. Retail: The study assessed the average distribution distance from each production facility to a retail store for the North American markets.
4. Use: The study assumed use patterns of twice a week (bottles are filled and washed two times a week) for three years. Data for water, detergent and heating in a residential water heater for hand washing were also included.
5. End of life management: The study used published sources for landfilling, incineration and recycling of bottle material in North American markets.
6. Electricity Production: The study estimated electricity use for all processes in North America using an average North American grid mix from Ecoinvent database. When electricity data for specific countries were not present in Ecoinvent the process was modeled using electricity mix data from the International Energy Agency.
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